April 22, 2021

Spotter Up

In Depth Tactical Solutions

Top 10 Best Tactical Jeans for Concealed Carry for Active people

20 min read

I wrote an article about how to select jeans for concealed carry. It’s been a very popular article. Here are some brands that you should check out if you’re looking for jeans to use with your firearm or Everyday Carry (EDC). One of the issues that I have with a few top ten lists is the fact that some of the people writing those articles have never tested the products, or do not have a working knowledge of firearms, EDC or anything related to physically moving. They primarily write their articles to draw you to their website in order to get you to “click” on a promoted product; we do the same, however! Many articles out there titled “Top Ten best tactical pants”, or “Top 10 best jeans”, etc. but how would they really know? We’ve tested a lot of products over the years, while using firearms and moving over different kinds of terrain. Some of the products marked as tactical simply do not perform well regardless of what they state that they offer. We have reviewed dozens of pants over the last 5 years. For this article I combined products that we already reviewed with products that I thought were noteworthy, after searching for tactical jeans on the internet.

So, here is my caveat: If you are going to purchase from any of the companies that I listed below, I recommend that you do further research, in order to ensure the product works for you. I am happy that consumers today have more choices for “tactical” jeans than they did five years ago, however the market has a long way to go. There are only a few jeans products that I would truly recommend. I am recommending the products below because we’ve reviewed most of them, and they are likely going to meet you needs better than standard Levi’s or Wrangler’s of yesteryear. I inserted a few links for you to read the entire jeans reviews, and also so you can make a purchase of that product. Enjoy!

Note: denim is a sturdy cotton warp-faced textile in which the weft passes under two or more warp threads. This twill weaving produces a diagonal ribbing that distinguishes it from cotton duck. The most common denim is indigo denim, in which the warp thread is dyed, while the weft thread is left white. They call this Indigo Blue.

LAPG Jeans Review

Viktos Operatus Jeans Review

5.11 Jeans Review

Pentagon Jeans Review

5.11 Tactical Men’s Defender-Flex Straight Fit Jean

Aurora Project

AdaptivX V2X Rendition Jeans

LAPG Terrain Flex Jeans  (fully reviewed)

Purchase

Spotterup writer Ben Johnson gave these great marks. Cost 5/5: $39.99, the features they come with far exceed the price. *Durability*: Only been running them for 5-6 weeks, have not seen any issues yet. Belt loops seem strongly reinforced and numerous, half a dozen washings and plenty of dirt and grime and they show no signs of wear. These pants have not given me any reason to doubt their durability, but as wear is something that takes much longer to show I didn’t feel it was something I could accurately score. For the previous jeans review there was a one-year warranty that allowed me to score durability, LAPG does not. That is not to knock LAPG, I am sure the much higher price of those other jeans is a factor in the coverage. Comfort/Fit 4/5: Comfort is great except for the lack of a gusset, have really come to appreciate that in jeans. Would have liked more belt loops to secure the belt when carrying gear and keep the belt from riding up. Weight/Aesthetics 5/5: Not too heavy, they do not look tacticool. They’re definitely on the thinner side, not necessarily a negative point just be aware for wearing in colder weather. Functionality 5/5: For $40 or $100 they offer great features, pockets are useful on and off the range. Mag pockets are great for magazines, flashlights, or simply your cell phone or a notebook and pen. Total 19/20: I eliminated durability from numerical scoring because I did not feel like the time period I’ve had with these jeans gives me a fair look of how long they’ll last. These pants have not given me any reason to doubt their durability, but as wear is something that takes much longer to show I didn’t feel it was something I could accurately score. For the previous jeans review there was a one-year warranty that allowed me to score durability, LAPG doesn’t offer that it might be saving the consumer some money that way.

 

The Terrain Flex Jeans from LA Police Gear are the result of years of development, samples, blood, samples, sweat, tears, and more samples. We strove to bring a truly high-end jean that doesn’t compromise on fit, quality, features, and price. This tactical jean has all the features you’d expect – an amazing stretch fabric (that doesn’t look like it), rear hip pockets, a hidden handcuff key pocket, hidden knife clip reinforcements, and high-quality zippers, buttons, and stitching.

The Terrain Flex Straight Fit Jeans are the perfect balance between a modern and classic jean. The medium wash has just the right amount of distressing to make these jeans perfect for casual or more dressy settings. For the fabric, we added in just 2% of spandex to give it that flexibility you need without sacrificing any looks. The Terrain Flex Straight Fit Jeans in Dark Wash have an amazingly stretchy fabric that looks clean, performs well, and can be dressed up or down. We were very careful to add just the right amount of stretch so they don’t look like traditional stretchy denim. The straight fit is the perfect balance of a flattering rise and fit through the waist and thighs, with a straight leg all the way down past the knee. Our jeans have a roomy waist thanks to the stretch fabric, making them a great choice for concealed carry.

9 Pocket Configuration:

  • 2 front pockets with internal hidden clip reinforcement
  • 2 front “watch” pockets modified to fit pistol mags
  • 2 traditional rear patch pockets
  • 2 rear hip pockets sized for rifle mags or smart phones
  • 1 hidden handcuff key pocket (in rear center belt loop)

Features:

  • Medium Wash – Perfect for casual or dressy settings
  • Dark Wash – Clean, professional look
  • Straight Fit – Classic fit in waist and thighs, straight leg past the knee
  • Medium Wash, Vintage Wash, Charcoal, & Black fabric composition is 13 oz. stretch denim (98% Cotton, 2% Spandex)
  • Dark Wash fabric composition is 13 oz. stretch denim (73% Cotton, 25% Polyester, & 2% Spandex)
  • Prewashed to minimize shrinking and for natural feel and appearance
  • Classic button waist with brass locking YKK zipper
  • Reinforced, boot-friendly double heel fabric
  • High end stitching with bar tacks in key areas
  • 9 pocket design (see above for details)

From the jungles of Vietnam to the mountains of Afghanistan, jeans have been the unofficial pant of SOF units for decades. Our premier tactical jean, the Gunfighter, takes this popular benchmark and notches it up for the ultimate denim force multiplier. The Gunfighter mens jeans are constructed for best fit and comfort with a Cordura® stretch denim/nylon blend and feature an exclusive flex Cordura® crotch, offering uncompromised mobility & durability. With black arms specific equipment pocketing and padded waistband, they’re the perfect pant for your daily gunfight.

–    Attackposture fit
–    Cordura® stretch denim chassis
–    Vented stretch Cordura® crotch gusset
–    Padded waistband for comfort from heavy warbelts
–    Oversized belt loops fit tactical belts
–    YKK® brand front zipper for durability
–    Magazine hip pockets
–    Pistol magazine coin pocket
–    Hidden waistband stash pocket
–    Velcro® morale patch compatible
–    U.S. veteran designed & developed
–    1 year workmanship & materials warranty

VIKTOS Gunfighter Jeans

Purchase

We didn’t review these. We did review the Operatus Jeans. Viktos is a brand known for making pretty good products. I like the fact that this product uses a gusset and has a padded waistband. The oversized belt loops are a must on any pair of jeans.

From the jungles of Vietnam to the mountains of Afghanistan, jeans have been the unofficial pant of SOF units for decades. Our premier tactical jean, the Gunfighter, takes this popular benchmark and notches it up for the ultimate denim force multiplier. The Gunfighter mens jeans are constructed for best fit and comfort with a Cordura® stretch denim/nylon blend and feature an exclusive flex Cordura® crotch, offering uncompromised mobility & durability. With black arms specific equipment pocketing and padded waistband, they’re the perfect pant for your daily gunfight.

–    Attackposture fit
–    Cordura® stretch denim chassis
–    Vented stretch Cordura® crotch gusset
–    Padded waistband for comfort from heavy warbelts
–    Oversized belt loops fit tactical belts
–    YKK® brand front zipper for durability
–    Magazine hip pockets
–    Pistol magazine coin pocket
–    Hidden waistband stash pocket
–    Velcro® morale patch compatible
–    U.S. veteran designed & developed
–    1 year workmanship & materials warranty

PENTAGON ROGUE from MILITARY1st (fully reviewed)

Purchase

I reviewed these. Good jeans, but I think most of their sizes will be too tight on some people. “I think Pentagon should consider coming out with a slim leg jean if they want to keep the hip style. Slim legs jeans styles are often mistaken for skinny jeans but are not as form fitting around the calf and thighs. For guys like me with big thighs the slim leg is a better choice than the skinny jeans. A straight leg jeans model is perfect for nearly all body shapes and will be a preferable style for many. Straight legs do do not have any tapering to the jean itself allowing for a solid shape throughout the jeans.  They are looser at the knee. Or they should come out with a wide leg or boot cut. Boot cut jeans taper at the ankle and can be paired easily with boots. Boot cut is excellent for ankle-holster concealed carry. These jeans look good, are comfortable, useful and priced-well. I would not purchase them unless they came out with a boot leg model but I like their concept. Some of our readers might really like these. If you are looking for a slick, modern look and lots of tactical advantage in an urban environment then consider the Pentagon jeans.”

Crafted from hardwearing and highly breathable Cotton fabric with stonewashed denim finish, the new Rogue Jeans Pants from Pentagon feature self-locking YKK fly zip with button, multiple storage pockets, dedicated magazine pockets, diamond crotch for added freedom of movement, and triple stitching at stress points for extra durability. Thanks to its classic casual fitting jeans cut design and contemporary look; the Rogue Jeans Pants are perfect for everyday wear as well as for highly demanding outdoor activities such as hiking, hunting or paintball.

  • Classic casual fitting jeans cut with tactical design
  • Self-locking YKK fly zip with button
  • Two regular front hand pockets with reinforced fillets and inner sleeve pockets
  • Two classic rear pockets
  • Two concealed magazine pockets above the rear pockets
  • Small front tool sleeve pocket on right leg
  • Diamond crotch for added comfort and freedom of movement
  • Six belt loops with front loops reinforced
  • Triple stitching on stress points
  • Genuine YKK zipper
  • Hardwearing stone washed denim fabric for contemporary look and feel
  • Material: 100% Cotton
  • Manufacturer: Pentagon
  • Manufacturer’s number: K05028-40

DYNAMIS ALLIANCE (fully reviewed)

Purchase

These are also sold under the name AdaptivX. We reviewed these too. Spotterup writer Jon Dufresne loved these. He wrote, “The jeans are also made of a stretch material that is amazing. Not only does it help with movement, sitting, and awkward positions but improves the capacity of the pockets. There is also some stretch in the waistband that gives a little with movement and helps with conceal carry. As a Floridian I don’t own many pairs of jeans and most of the time wear shorts due to the tropical climate. There are many circumstances where jeans are needed. When I am on a detail and need to look like everyone else the V2X Rendition jean is my go-to. Some people may not be willing to pay for jeans that cost this much but I will tell you now, you get what you pay for. The V2X Rendition jean is well worth the cost in my opinion and when you think of it logically, they will last you quite a long time. Money well spent. Read his entire review here.

  • Modern Taper
  • 5″ inseam for custom fit
  • Premium Candiani Italian Stretch Denim
  • Dnamic Stretch
  • Signature Slash Pockets
  • Rivet-Less Construction
  • Knight Gre 4 Wa Stretch Inner Waistband
  • 9 pocket design
  • Sewn in – USA AMERICAN MADE flag
  • Black Thread

We do not think much more needs to be said, but if you want to know more details here is what we did.  We took a premium Italian Stretch Denim and through a detailed wash process created a deep knight black color that is extremely well balanced.  We also treated this denim to give it an extremely high quality feel. We removed all rivets and replaced them with strategically placed bar tacks to increase overall function and durability. This is the first pair of pants we have released with our American Made Flag placed into them and we are proud to say that we have fought through some battles of our own and this flag represents the resiliency it takes to hold true to what you believe in.  Honoring why we have the freedom to even be given an opportunity to run an American made company will never be lost on us. Tier-1 Designed and Developed. Made in the USA

Särmä TST Tactical Jeans

Purchase

We haven’t reviewed these. Again, I think most elastic jeans are going to serve you better than straight-up denim. My issue with most elastic jeans today is that they are made poorly. Many companies are just getting in on the “racket”. The Sarma Jeans don’t really have anything tactical going for them, but that doesn’t mean they won’t work for you. There aren’t slash pockets for magazines, or reinforced knee pads, or anything other than elastic material. Give them a try, and let us know!

Tactical Jeans – when you don’t want to use cargo pants or camo stuff for covert work, but find ordinary jeans cumbersome and lacking in features. Mobile and stretchy, these would probably be good enough for Chuck Norris (if he didn’t already have his own karate jeans).

  • Elastic material and crotch gusset
  • Hidden pockets with easy access for smartphones etc.
  • High durability
  • 94/4/2 % cotton/polyester/elastane, 403 g/m2 or 12 oz/yd2.

What’s unique about these is the fact that they look unassuming, but there’s more than meets the eye. The cut and material offer mobility unmatched by any casual pants, and extra pockets are hidden in plain sight to keep things available for grabs. The special features are so sleek that if you don’t use them, you won’t notice them either.

Made in EU (Estonia) by Masi company.

Many people prefer Tactical Jeans with a smaller waist size compared to ordinary pants. Part of this is because of the stretchy material but also because of the roomy cut: as with Särmä Common Jeans, the waistbands of these jeans are two inches larger than the nominal waist size to let it ride lower than the navel.

Tactical Jeans of a smaller-than-usual size will not be glam rock tight so if you want a closer fit, give the sizing a moment of thought.

Below is a table of garment measurements:

The starting point was jeans as regular as possible, namely the Särmä Common Jeans. We added a crotch gusset to allow ninja moves, which are also easier thanks to a 2-Way Stretch material and elastane mixed into the fabric.

The fit is best described as “plain” or “regular”, although it differs slightly from Common Jeans. We didn’t incorporate any bagginess for pocket space, because the material stretch handles it. The belt loops are big enough for a 50 mm / 2″ belt but work fine with regular 40 mm / 1.6″ belts as well. Button fly.

  • Mid rise waist
  • Stretchy, non-restricting material
  • 50 mm / 2″ belt loops
  • Button fly
  • Crotch gusset
  • Ten useful pockets:
    • Two ordinary side pockets
    • Two (pistol mag size) smaller pockets inside each side pocket
    • Two ordinary back pockets
    • Two (assault rifle mag size) hidden back pockets

In addition to the usual front and rear pockets, the front pockets have two flat “coin pockets” per side. Even the smaller ones are big enough for a pistol magazine, folding knife or multi-tool.

In the rear, you’ll find two slash pockets behind the side seams. A yoke conceals the mouth, so it’s “not there”. The pockets are large enough for a smartphone or tourniquet, but by coincidence also fit something you can use to feed an Evil Black Gun.

In our trials, we have used the Tactical Jeans for all kinds of rough business, and even after wearing and washing they retain a good look. Natural fibers don’t melt or light up that easily, so the primary material is 94% cotton. A 4% polyester content improves durability and 2% of elastane.

Fabric weight: 403 g/m2 or 12 oz/yd2.

Machine wash at 40° Celsius / 104° F. The color bleeds so handle the whites and coloreds separately. May crock before the first wash, so don’t sit on your grandma’s white leather couch before that.

The colors are black and blue. When stretched, the fabric reveals light-grey fibers within the fabric, giving a lighter appearance. Especially the black ones may appear dark grey from a distance.

Särmä TST is Varusteleka’s in-house brand of clothing and gear designed for military and law enforcement end-users. Our clothing and equipment are made in co-operation with a number of experienced manufacturers with a strong background in producing clothing and gear for military and law enforcement officials, most notably for the Finnish Defence Forces. For further reading check out the Särmä TST corner of our website.

Särmä TST products are covered by a 12-month warranty against defects in materials and workmanship. For further information please read our detailed warranty guide.

HELIKON TEX

Purchase

These look a little too glam for me, but you might like them. I like the elastic waist band for IWB holster, the two gadget pockets for phone or mag, and the articulated knee construction.

  • 80% Cotton/19% Polyester/1% Spandex
  • Imported
  • Unique US and EU patented design – A well-known, Helikon-Tex best seller
  • Thanks to its 2-way elastic fabric, you get a comfortable, slim look with an increased range of motion without unnecessary stress on its seams. Its stretchable waist gives you up to 2 additional inches for improved comfort
  • Its lightweight and breathable materials provide an increased comfort during prolonged use in a magnitude of different climates
  • The casual, low profile design combined with the jeans look gives the versatility and capabilities to fulfill the needs of professional users while in an urban setting
  • It has a perfect, patented pocket arrangement for carrying all your essential equipment in an organized discrete fashion without losing your tactical advantage.

5.11 DEFENDER JEANS (fully reviewed)

Purchase

Ben’s reviewed these too. Durability N/A: As stated in the video I did not spend enough time with this product to fairly gauge it’s durability. While I have not seen any reason to doubt the product’s durability the few weeks I’ve had it are not sufficient for me to give it an honest score. I would like to note that living the Dad life means I’m much harder on jeans than normal. The amount of pants I’ve worn out crawling around on the ground with my kids continues to grow, but these pants haven’t shown any issue thus far.

Price 4/5: For $70 these are not the most expensive jeans in the tactical market, or even the most expensive pair that I have recently reviewed. The fit and functionality prove their worth, however the practicality of the jeans does not so greatly outweigh others to earn it a perfect score. Both front pockets have reinforcement to hold up against constant use from clips for pocketknives, flashlights, etc. The numerous belt loops provide a solid foundation for your belt.

Weight/Aesthetics 5/5: These look like normal jeans, they have a nice gold threading, and while they are on the thinner side I do not see that as a detracting factor. Having features that are very useful for daily or range use without giving off the tactical Timmy vibe is something I appreciate.

Fit/Comfort 4/5: The fit was great, the fitted waistband fit much more naturally and the stretch allowed the fit to not be tailored to one specific waistline. The only detracting factor was the lack of a gusseted crotch, I have come to appreciate that factor in pants, especially chasing my toddlers around and I did notice it’s absence from these pants. I do not know how this would affect the price point, but I’d be willing to pay a little more for this feature to be added, and it has become common enough in the market that I was surprised it wasn’t featured.

Practicality/Functionality 5/5: From the pocket layout to the belt loops to the way the jeans moved with my body throughout the day. I am still surprised at how well put together these pants were. I love that I can use the jeans on the range and then use them just as effectively with my normal daily wear.

Total 18/20: I’m buying another pair of these jeans. I’m not sure anything else I say goes farther than simply putting my money into purchasing more of this product.

 5.11® brings you the comfort and styling of your favorite everyday pant with tactical functionality and stretch built right in. The Defender-Flex pant has been developed for 5.11 end users who are looking for low-vis tactical without sacrificing performance at the firing range or comfort for everyday wear. Crafted with a Cavalry Twill cotton/polyester blend, with just enough elastane for stretch, these pants are made to keep their shape with style. The five-pocket styling and soft fade finish look sharp, and the back mag pockets mean you’ll always be ready.

  • Comfortable, slim, and tactical pant
  • Five pocket styling plus two rear hip pockets
  • Soft fade finish and enzyme washed fabric
  • Fitted waistbandSPECIFICATIONS
  • Button top fly with locking YKK® zipper
  • 8.8 oz. stretch Cavalry twill (66% cotton / 31% poly / 3% elastane)
  • Dual back patch pockets
  • GSA/TAA compliant

VIKTOS Operatus Jeans (fully reviewed)

Purchase

Spotterup writer Ben Johnson reviewed these.

Comfort/Fit (4/5): The gusseted crotch and the slightly oversized thighs make for pants that allow me to move freely. On the range, or in the even more demanding role as a Dad of two toddlers they do not restrict my movement. I do wish the thighs made for a little more room so that anyone that hits the squat rack regularly could wear pants that fit their thighs AND waist.
Durability (5/5): As stated previously I have only had these pants for a little over a month so this is certainly not a long term review. However, in that period of time they have been subjected to much abuse and stain potential yet still retain the look they had from the packaging.
Weight/Aesthetics (5/5): While black is not my favorite color for jeans it does serve a purpose in some instances, and the other colors are more aesthetically pleasing. The pants are of solid construction for durability and warmth, without being overly heavy.
Functionality (3/5): This was the biggest category of disappointment for me. Between the redundancy of the slash pockets at the hips, the side slash pockets not being deep enough to conceal my regularly carried magazines, and the double zipper being more of a hinderance than a help the functionality of these jeans fell short of my expectations. They do function fine as jeans and some may find aspects of the jeans useful, but I did not find these features as being very practical for regular use.
Cost (3/5): This score is always influenced heavily by cost in comparison to other products on the market and how well the product does in the other four categories. Viktos jeans are priced higher than almost every other competitor in their market and they do not appear to offer any significant advantage over those competitors to justify the higher price tag.
Total (20/25): This is a much lower score than I expected to be giving a Viktos product. I want to make it clear that I still think very highly of the brand and absolutely hate that this review turned out the way it did. The Viktos Team is comprised of individuals I have a lot of respect for and have learned a from them, either remotely or in actual class time as a student.  I would absolutely still recommend Viktos products to anyone interested, but I cannot recommend these jeans. Between the cost in comparison to other brands and the limited utility of the pockets I’d spend my money on a different pair of jeans.

Lo-vis enough to be your best daily jean, tactical enough to carry a full EDC load-out. Stretch denim chassis with a gusseted crotch and slightly oversized thighs designed with a fit to move with the operator through the myriad of combat postures and evolutions with comfort. The dual-pull zipper ensures you can conduct men’s drainage operations without having to de-militarize your waistline. The Operatus™ XP Denim Jean includes four external slash pockets allowing for instant access to your equipment: Two external leg slash pockets provide pistol magazine access and concealment, while front exterior slash pockets provide adequate depth for access to standard capacity AR style magazines for range days or if SHTF. Blades and flashlights also tuck away nicely for your EDC needs.

– Attackposture™ fit
– 12oz Stretch denim chassis
– Slightly oversized thighs for increased mobility
– Four external slash pockets for quick-access EDC
– Crotch gusset to eliminate saddle pinch
– Seven belt loops
– Double zip front fly for access with a gun belt
– U.S. veteran designed & developed
– 1-year workmanship & materials warranty

 VERTX DEFIANCE

Purchase

For decades, jeans have been the go-to pant whenever comfort, durability and an unassuming presence were desired. They transcend generations, occupations and get more comfortable every time you put them on. Our Defiance Jeans add superior utility to the Prepared Professional’s™ closet with 11 pockets that allow you to keep everyday carry items close at hand and they are ideally suited to teaming up with work or gear belts and any type of shirt or outerwear. They are the closest you can get to wearing a multi-tool. With just enough stretch to keep up with your activities and a healthy dose of Coolmax® to help regulate your body temperature in all environments, they’ll be in your regular rotation from day one.

Features:

  • 11 pockets keep essential items handy and organized
  • Deep front pockets are made of soft highly-breathable mesh
  • Watch pocket in right front pocket
  • Front pockets have a pass-through slot for comms lead or a RATS tourniquet
  • Dual angled rear yoke pockets fit standard smart phones and rifle mags
  • Wallet traps in both rear pockets keep wallet or passport secure
  • 4 mini stash pockets let you pre-load key items from 1.75 to 2 inches long
  • Keyring and lanyard anchor point in both front pockets
  • Concealed DropLoop pass-through in each belt loop for flexible restraints or reinforced tether points for lanyards or gear

Construction:

  • Relaxed fit is comfortable and allows free movement
  • Articulated knees enable dynamic mobility and prevent cuff creep when sitting
  • Full gusseted crotch allows greater range of motion
  • Brass YKK® locking zipper
  • 8 belt loops are 0.5-inch wide and fit up to 1.75-inch belts
  • Boot-friendly cuffs
  • All heavy-wear seams are double-stitched
  • Bar tacks or brass rivets at critical stress points

Fabric and Technology:

  • Stretch 10.5-ounce 71% cotton/4% polyester/7% Modal/17% Coolmax®/1% Lycra®
  • Pre-washed for comfortable feel and natural appearance
  • COOLMAX: Stay cool, dry and comfortable in hot weather or while being active. Never washes out.

CONDOR JEANS

Purchase

Engineered for the urban operator in mind, the Condor Cipher pants blends modern aesthetic with technical performance. Constructed with lightweight quick-drying stretch fabric to ensure 24/7 comfort, micro mesh pocket liner to boost breathability, and a gusseted crotch for enhanced maneuverability. The Condor Cipher  balances performance and comfort for the challenges ahead.

  • Specifications
  • Elastic waist band for IWB holster
  • Two gadget pockets for phone or mag
  • Two back pockets
  • Zipper pocket on the right
  • Articulated knee construction
  • Imported
  • Size        W:30″-40″
  • L:30,32,34
  • *Slim Fit*
  • Color     Black, Charcoal
  • Notifications      Materials: 97% Nylon/ 3% Spandex

*The views and opinions expressed on this website are solely those of the original authors and contributors. These views and opinions do not necessarily represent those of Spotter Up Magazine, the administrative staff, and/or any/all contributors to this site.

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